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Monday, March 8, 2010

The Meaninglessness of Salvation From God in the Thought of Karl Marx.

The Meaninglessness of Salvation From God in the Thought of Karl Marx.
Marx sees reality as a dialectical process. Marx’s Dialectics, however, is peculiar to his philosophy. He uses the term against the Hegelian background, where historical dialectics has an a priori triadic structure of thesis, antithesis (both of which are opposites) and synthesis (which is their connection between). His sense of dialectic is prompted in a special sense by Feuerbach, even though he criticizes him. For Marx, dialectics is “a scientific hypothesis which does not seek to be dogmatic, but needs examining. It is a dialectic based on observation and analysis, in which the movement of the spirit is a reflection of the movement of reality, which for Marx is always the historical process of becoming.” (Schillebeeckx, E., Christ, The Experience of Jesus as Lord, trans by Bowden, J., N.Y.: The Seabury Press, 1980, p. 706.). Rather than the triadic character of thesis, antithesis and synthesis found in Hegel, Marx’s dialectics is more natural in context, it is essentially: mutual – interdependence – dependence of real phenomena. That is to say that reality always consists of a process of human history that is more of mutual dependence which extends to all aspects of reality. It is on the basis of this interdependence that history is dialectical. (Ibid).

Furthermore, Marx argues that the dialectical is the historical process of growth of the matter that is dependent on the interdependent transformations of reality. This means that, reality, which for him is material, by a law of inexorable necessity and through a perpetual conflict of forces moves towards a final synthesis (a classless society). Marx therefore sees the process of growth in history as a universal dialectic in the sense that “one phenomenon (e.g. Capitalism) irresistibly (and not freely) calls forth a counter-movement (e.g. communism) …. [This] is an inevitable and inexorable rational logic in history. The new elements which emerge in it are at the same time rationally necessary.” (Ibid., p. 707). That is to say that in dialectics is a struggle, a conflict - one that is also inherent in history too. (Marx, k., “The Poverty of Philosophy,” in McLellan, D., (ed.), Karl Marx, Selected Writings, Oxford: Oxford Univ. press, 1977.) For example, there is the class struggle between owners and the working class. These two refer to thesis and antithesis. The synthesis, which is a mediation is a transposition to a higher level, that is entirely new and that takes place suddenly, often, by a leap. According to Marx “… the contraries balance, neutralize, paralyse each other. The fusion of these two contradictory thoughts constitutes a new thought, which is the synthesis of them.” (Ibid., p. 201).

Humanity is constantly confronted with the task of overcoming or transcending its original prehistory. A period of private interests is transcended by that of class interests, and in the future, as Marx outlined on the basis of a scientific analysis, the reification of man (promoted by the illusory freedom of action of individuals and group conflicts) will be transcended by the purposeful control of human actions, and this also, subsequently, by international unity/solidarity. This future that is achievable is often by criticism and revolution and can also be a matter of objective scientific analysis. (Marx, K., “The Communist Manifesto”, in McLellan, D., (ed.), ibid.).

It is on these presuppositions that Marx builds his economic theory. He started by attempting to analyze the problem of human suffering to discover its causes. He discovered that the causes of human suffering lay in objective forms of society in which we live, specifically in capitalism. He approached the problem of human suffering from the perspective of his economic theory. For him, the problem of human suffering can be equated to the final total of an economic system which is founded on the profit motive and competition. The suffering of many men is the calculable result of the conditions of production, which imply an inner logic, namely a development from barter to money and from money to capital, based on the wages of those who by definition are not the possessors of capital. This inner logic results in the alienation of the workers, from their work and themselves. In this economic system suffering can be formulated in an equation: Suffering = ration of the surplus value: s/v=(surplus labour)/(necessary labour)
The rate of surplus value is the figure that produces the mass of human suffering, it is the “exact expression for the degree of exploitation of labour power by capital, or of the labourer by the capitalist.” (Marx, K., “Capital,” in McLellan, D., ibid, p. 474.)

For Marx, though many have done a lot to support the suffering man and to help him, they have left the causes untouched. Various religions, while attempting to overcome suffering have not taken sufficient account of its social and economic causes. Hence he sought to introduce a fundamental change in economic conditions themselves, a change that would urge in a utopian future, which, for him, is achievable only with real effort and that will eradicate all suffering. For him much suffering would disappear when this new social and economic order emerges, and this is attainable only through revolution that is carried on and propagated by the working class, who have to surrender their own interests as they have nothing to lose but their chains. This revolution is essential, even though it will also cause much suffering, because social change cannot happen without struggle, specifically class struggle. This change for him, therefore, is a social political movement, but of a revolutionary kind that is intended to be a last resort.

This Marxist ideal remained unattainable. The power of the proletariat which is the provisional antithesis, i.e. the interim, became a permanent state as its thesis (capitalism) remained stronger. Hence the dialectic could not be resolved in a synthesis. Marxism, thus became a dictatorship perpetuating more inhumanity, as products of the revolution, than was before. This interim was delayed. It is at this point that a confrontation between Marxism and the religious traditions of man is supremely necessary.

Marxism does not imply atheism as such. It was only in its latter developments in Lenin and consequently in Bolshevism that Marx’s scientific hypothesis became, strictly, a metaphysical system. It called into reality a movement that also undergoes a hermeneutical and actualizing process in itself. Ordinarily, it was an economic theory and so cannot be viewed under the lens of religion. Marx saw religion as a system which conceals social injustice. For him, all religions had a correct intuition, i.e. the protest against human suffering, but they only derailed for having sought a false solution to this problem in a fictitious world above, in a beyond (i.e. heaven for Christians). Hence he claimed that when the social revolution is achieved, religion of itself would die a natural death since its origin – human suffering – has vanished.

By this, Marx has reduced all human suffering to social and economic factors. He forgets that this is not the whole man such that the causes of human suffering cannot be reduced barely to social and economic factors, neither is it is chief cause, and suffering cannot be the origin of religion.

All religions concern themselves with the human subject while relating him to the Other (the absolute). It also addresses what affects this human subject and how this relates to his belief in the absolute that captures his attention. One of these concerns is human suffering. “Marx did the same thing, except that he also saw causes where others had not seen them.” (Schillebeeckx, E., ibid, p.712.). It is noteworthy that Marx, in terms of religion, was a Feuerbachian. Feuerbach was of the opinion that the absolute nature attributed to God is only a “reflection of ‘the nature of man.’ God is the objective nature of the genre man. The consciousness of God is the self-consciousness of man. Religion is the solemn unveiling of man’s hidden treasures …. By education and a change of heart man can arrive at the insight that he is simply projecting his own deepest nature on to man.” (Schillebeeckx, E., ibid, p. 712 - 713.). But while unlike Feuerbach, he rejects Feuerbach’s naïve replacement of religion with education and his transcendental philosophy of the objectification of the self which is not put in question. For him, the conditions why man objectifies the self is in man himself. Man is the total of social (and economic) relationships. Religion therefore is the “self-consciousness and self-awareness of man who has either not yet attained to himself or has already lost himself again.” (Marx, K., “Towards a Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, Introduction,’ in McLellan, D., (ed.), Karl Marx, Selected Writings, Oxford: Oxford Univ. press, 1977, p.63)

“Religion is merely the ‘appearance of sanctity’ or the spiritual aroma of the human vale of tears, an expression of and at the same time a protest against real misery, a protest which, however, has not been sufficiently understood. Religion is in ignorance about its own nature and therefore in ignorance about the misery to which it owes its own existence. Therefore it is the opium of the people. Religion is a passive reflection of the economic conflicts in society.” (Schillebeeckx, E., Ibid, p. 713.). Marx’s idea was not altogether a radical break with human history, with the past (thought of the past, historical project of the past.). Marx, thus, expects the automatic abolition of religions. For him, they are merely an epiphenomenon or a subsidiary manifestation of real economic alienation. “But since the existence of religion is the existence of defect, the source of this defect can only be sought in the nature of the state itself. Religion for us no longer has the force of a basis for secular deficiencies, but only that that of a phenomenon. Therefore, we explain the religious prejudices of free citizens by their secular prejudice, we do not insist that they must abolish their religious limitations in order to abolish secular limitations. We insist that they abolish their religious limitations as soon as they abolish their secular limitations.” Religion, thus, stands outside Marx’s Marxism. Real Marxism does not imply atheism per se. But Marxism also affirms that when the socialist society is attained, there will be no more need for religion. Religion is defined as the reflex of non reflected, alienated conditions of life. With the illumination (scientific analysis) which prompts revolutionary action, religion automatically disappears as a logically consistent consequence.

Sunday, March 7, 2010

Thank You Lord!



I want to join my voice in thnking the good Lord for what he dd for my biig brother, Emeka Chukwu. It's a baby girl. Now Ihave a new nephew, and am most grateful. Our prayers have been heard. God be praised. Alleluia.

Thank you Lord. You are alive and ever living. What man could compare with you in wisdom and might. You have shown us your mercy and have heard our prayers. We bless nand glorify you always. Alleluia.

Please Father, turn not your face from us at any time, since we put our trust in you alone. Bless our families, bless our parents, bless us in all we do, and bless us also on the way and in the house. Thank you Father. Today, I will offer you a bouquet of flowers. Let my joys be roses, let my smiles be their perfume, and let my communions keep them fresh ever. Thank you Lord. Alleluia.

Amen!

Emeka, am happy for you. Am proud of you. Liliya, my sister, God bless and keep you always.

(The pix above - from left to right - Ifeoma, my big sis, Ngozi, my sis, Tony's wife, Emeka, Michael, me, Chiamaka, my little sis.)

THIS SEXUALLY CHARGED SOCIETY, ANY FUTURE.

THIS SEXUALLY CHARGED SOCIETY, ANY FUTURE.

INTRODUCTION
I once visited a town in the South- Eastern part of Nigeria where almost all the young girls at one time or the other had gotten pregnant and aborted it or born babies. As such, these girls have either one, two or three babies born to their parents at home. Thus, the number of illegitimate children in this village seemed to outnumber the legitimate ones by a wide margin. It was a really appalling situation which the people of that town had come to live with. The various challenges against this decadent status quo, threatening their future as a people could only lead to a relative restiveness that saw the girls taking up to lesbianism as an alternative.

Man is a sexual being, for God created them male and female. Human sexuality defines almost 80% of man’s daily routine activities. The attraction and love of these sexes finds it’s most intimate expression in the act of sexual love, a love, far beyond genital expression. The sexual instinct in man and woman is the brainchild behind the continuing existence of the human race. The pleasure attached to its satisfaction is providential even though it is not its sole purpose/aim. (cf. Peschke, K. Christian Ethics in the Light of Vatican II, Bangalore: Theological Publications, 2004).

SEXUAL REVOLUTION
The society today has become so sexually charged. The modern period has lost sight of the complementarity of the two dimensions of human sexuality: pleasure and procreation. As such it tends to overemphasize an individualistic definition of sex that exalts personal gratification and interpersonal fulfillment at the detriment of the procreative aspect with its many social corollaries. (cf. Peschke, K. ibid). Hence the deformed outlook on life, the family and morality we find in our societies today. (cf. Pontifical Council for Social Communication, Pornography and Violence in the Communications Media: A Pastoral Response, 8 May 1989, Vatican Polyglot Press).

Nowadays people become sexually active at a very early stage in life and even give many reasons that readily vex the mind why they should do so. For them this is but the most explicit representation of “civilization”. It even appears that the moral principles that used to bind and guide humanity have so much been made nothing of that it no longer appeals to this generation. Such time-proven assertions that premarital sex could lead to frustration, regrets, etc, no longer make sense, nor do they have deterrent values any more with the modern inventiveness characteristic of sex and its corollary apparatus (e.g. condom, contraceptives, pills, etc.) that give a false assurance of safety against our ancient fears (pregnancy, S.T.D). Mutual agreement between persons prior to any engagement in illicit sexual act has become the norm of morality today. This has rendered archaic and otiose the traditional thinking that premarital sex is a form of theft on the part of either sexes involved in it. Nobody would be cheating on the other or stealing from the other. Such an agreement would not even be seen as binding one person to any particular person. It is a free world, wherein everybody gets the “best” satisfaction as pleases him or her without caring to have anybody’s guts for garters. It seems that most people have accepted this appalling status quo since nowadays the prize on virginity has so dwindled that it no longer counts for marriage as far as the physical and gymnastic (know how) go-with of the sexual act are not wanting.
The history of this sexual revolution has been traced by many to the unfortunate degeneration of the sense of shame (a protective instinct which prevents a too rapid diffusion of the libidinous agitations) that should surround our sexuality into prudishness – a state wherein people became ashamed even to deal with their own bodies in a natural way - in the Victorian age. (cf. Peschke, K., ibid) In reacting against this backdrop, the contemporary man tended towards a radical rejection of shame in every form as a way of giving himself a false sense of safety, liberation from the suffocations of the penultimate status quo. This false liberation – Sexual Revolution - has been given expression in various forms: the feminist revolution of the mid 19th century, which sought to equate the women folk to the male at all levels even to the wanton, unruly extent of women wooing men; the many upheavals in biomedical science such as surrogacy, in-vitro, etc.; and the blatant portrayal of nudity, pornography, etc, in our streets and communication media.

THE FUTURE IN VIEW.
The story in our introduction gives us a glimpse of what a sexually charged society like ours will gradually turn to. It is a bleak future. Marriage and family life is growing cold, and undergoing a serious threat. If shattered, the society itself may follow suit since the family is a microcosm of the society. “When the families are good the society automatically is good as well.” (Okike B., “The Common Good of the Family”, in: Oche Amamihe: Wisdom Journal of Theology and Philosophy, Vol. 1 No. 4, 2007, Enugu: Snaap Press Ltd., pp. 1 – 26).

We are responsible for the world and the future generation. The present generation should not live at the expense of people of future generations. We cannot continue to bring children into the world to suffer. It is our task to establish good foundations for our children before ever they are born, as responsible people. What future would a child born out of illicit sexual act have? No father, no family, the pangs of being orphaned, bleak future, etc. For sure, this is trouble. Even though they appear to be accepted, they are still considered illegitimate by the more traditionally minded ones among us, who often denying them any heritage. The career of many women today as mothers has been destroyed. They can no longer get pregnant nor give birth, because of the lives they lived as adolescents, youths. No matter how they pretend it doesn’t affect them or concern them, it really does hunt them.

Furthermore our life expectancy today is becoming low, because we exert too much energy on periphery, instant pleasure at the expense of monumental values and time. As such mental acuity is crucified on the altar of the ephemeral. More still, AIDS and STDs are growingly becoming the bane of our societies. Day in, day out, we loose the lives of our vibrant young men to them in an alarming rate. Others refuse to learn from these and so plunge headlong to the same fate. AIDS has become a full-blown developmental crisis. Its social and economic consequences are felt widely not only in health but in education, industry, agriculture, transport, human resources and the economy in general. Warnings about falling life expectancy, increase in adult and child mortality rates, increasing numbers of orphans and the destruction of family and community structures are not new. In 2005, for example, 2.6 million Nigerians were estimated to be infected with HIV and 170,000 Nigerians died of AIDS. (cf. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008. © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.)

WHAT DO WE DO?
There has been so much moralizing on these issues, all to little avail. I think, therefore, it is high time we faced this challenge from a totally different front. If the present status quo be left unchallenged, I wonder what the future holds for us. Posterity would never appreciate this age, since it has left it no legacies but problems to crack. Already humanity is gradually launching itself into a state of confusion, not knowing what way to go, which morality to adopt since a vast array of moral principles abound in our world today presenting divergent moral principles. Such a relative morality can in no way present mankind any truth or a way forward.

A basic stance on man is that man is a moral being. Take morality away from our day to day live, then we would be reduced to a brutal state of the survival of the fittest. Therefore, it is high time we began to redefine most issues that affect us. This is because, the meaning or value we place on things/issues, determine the way they affect our existence. Often we try to misdirect our blames on issues affecting us. Blaming women on the way they dress may not even be the solution to our problems.
There may not be much difference from the way the contemporary African woman dresses from the way our pre-modern fore-fathers did. Before the Western civilization and all it came with, most human races walked round the earth nude, denuding the breast, etc. But these people lived comfortably with this situation. I have always asked myself why/how such could have been possible following the scenario that is always created when somebody appears with one form of fashion or the other that is quite uncommon. A very important role is played by customs and the social environment in the specific articulation of this quest. “Nudity or a certain fashion that are customary in a region will ordinarily not provoke sexual desire. On the other hand uncustomary denudation of the body attracts attention and arouses the sexual passions. … Hence the rules of modesty must always carefully take into consideration the particular conditions of time and place” (Peschke, K. ibid., p. 440). Therefore, in the moral judgment on the decency of any fashion, no mathematical rules are possible concerning its slight or serious immodesty. However, “the rule holds that the latest, unusual fashion readily have an improper and exciting effect, whereas those of long standing appear less enticing or not at all, even though the fashion or custom may be a rather free and liberal one.” ( ibid., p. 441).

Socrates would say, ‘man know thyself, a life worth examining is worth living.” We have to redefine our motives on sex and sexuality, placing them in the right order. Our over individualistic definitions on sexuality that has so debased it must be changed with wholesome ones. This, however, should begin individually among us all gradually, till it becomes a general rule.

It is not just immodest dressing that leads men to sexual agitations. I think it is more of something of the mind, the psyche; the way they think about women. When I talk of redirecting our blames, I think it is high time we began to blame ourselves the more instead of others - the reality out there that only appears to us, without presenting to us what it really is - for our shortfalls. Men should know what they are made of. Women are neither mere objects of sex, nor must every of our hunger be satisfied. Let us therefore begin to work on ourselves, our personality. A personality that is well founded should affect the way we look at things, should make us see the right things and not the wrong ones and guide us against being highly gullible and impressionable persons. Our personality should go beyond our perception of reality. It should affect our responses to reality, i.e. the actions and behaviours that flow from that reality outside us, and not vice versa. Our choices, daily decisions, etc, express our personality. This concerns the women folk as much as it affects their male counterparts. It is a universal task needing urgent attention. The personal examination of one’s motives and a responsible investigation of the possible implications of ones actions, especially in sexual matters, are paramount.

Placing the right values before us is relevant if we must attain any meaningful development. Acting the hedonist role where pleasure becomes the sole goal cannot lead us anywhere. The right sense of shame and its rightful application is vital if people should act responsibly in sexual matters. The barriers of shame restrain the bodily desires. This is what the society needs today to live modestly.

The media can also be an avenue for the right outlook on life, the family and morality instead of the reverse. This is with particular reference to impressionable persons, especially the young who, naïve, regard the media as guide for social conduct. There is also need for sex education, by parents, school teachers and religious leaders. This will be geared towards feeding such impressionable persons with the right concepts, bearing in mind that foundation once destroyed, what can the just man do? Let us thus not model our behaviour on the contemporary world, but let the renewing of our minds transform us, so that we may discern for ourselves what is the will of God – what is good and acceptable and mature. (cf. Rom. 12: 2)

BLESSED BEYOND BOUNDS II: NIGERIA’S TOURIST ATTRACTIONS

BLESSED BEYOND BOUNDS II: NIGERIA’S TOURIST ATTRACTIONS.
Nigeria is a land blessed with many natural and human resources. Nature has endowed Nigeria with a good design that is so attractive that Nigeria makes one of the most naturally picturesque nations in the world. Nigeria is the most populated black nation in African, with its population totalling more than one-seventh of the entire population of this continent and with a good mix of ethnic groups, tribes and peoples that is very fascinating. A tour through the cities of Nigeria immediately demonstrates this fact as one is readily greeted by the beautiful colouration of the different peoples, ethnic groups, tribes, dialects, etc with their different cultures and modus viviendi evident in architect, clothing, language, gestures, etc. Nigeria is an adventure, simply put. From north to south, from east to west, Nigeria is beautiful and colourful. The high plains of Hausa land, the steep rises of Jos Plateau, the low lands of Sokoto, the rugged terrain of the Yoruba highland, the low-lying swampy terrain of the Niger delta, and the low sedimentary plains of the south-eastern Nigeria are exhilaratingly attractive. Nigeria’s tropical climate with its sharp regional variances is amazing. Touring in Nigeria, therefore, is, in the words of Michelle Cliff, “whorism”. This article is aimed at exposing the various tourist attractions in Nigeria.
Tourist attractions abound in Nigeria, ranging from natural attractions like hills, waterfalls, springs, lakes, mountains, rocks, beaches, etc; Man made attractions like resorts, parks, game reserves, ranches, etc; and Cultural attractions such as Festivals, carnivals, etc. The tourist attractions in Nigeria are spread out in the different states that make up the federation. Tourists come to Nigeria to enjoy its picturesque cites, some of which are natural wonders, its artistic treasures, beautiful beaches, resorts, parks, festivals and food. Tourism in Nigeria is one of the countries bourgeoning service activities, with the government and individuals doing much to improve and expand the country’s tourist facilities. Let us make a theoretical tour through these.
Anambra State is renowned for the Ogbunike Cave, a cave with a fascinating history dating back to the pre-colonial times and believed to have been inhabited by gods and goddesses; and with the Rojeny Tourist Village at Oba, beautifully adorned with recreational facilities such as a swimming pool, joy rides, a zoo, a shrine and a soccer stadium. Imo state is famous for the Oguta Lake Resort, which is a beautiful vacation place situated around the wide expanse of the Oguta lake. Interesting attractions in this resort are a Golf Course with 18 standard international holes; a mini bunker, constructed by the defunct Biafran Navy during the civil war, that houses war relics; the natural confluence of Oguta Lake and Urashi River, with its many mythic representations; fishes and fishing; cruise boat services and boat regattas; a mini-children recreation park; etc, and lodging facilities. There is also the Mbari Cultural Centre, which is a home of Igbo sculptural aesthetics, wherein are found sculptural or paint representations of most Igbo deities and their mythical messengers like the Ala, Amadioha, Ogwugwu, etc. Cross River State is blessed and naturally titivated with the Obudu Cattle Ranch, a wonder of a place with a temperate weather condition that ensures its evergreen vegetation round the year, and adorned with attractions such as bird watching, horse riding, biking, etc, with hotels and lodging facilities; Tinapa, the first integrated business and leisure resort in Nigeria, with world Class facilities for business, leisure and entertainment, located in Calabar; the Agbokin and Kwa Falls; a Game Reserve at Okwangwo in Obudu local government and Oban Forest Reserves both of which were combined to create the Calabar National Park.; the Boshi Game Reserve; the Mary Slessor Cottage; and a National Museum. In Akwa Ibom, there is the Oron Museum famous for its collection of fine African carvings; the Ibeno Beach, and the Opobo Boatyard with its natural sand beaches at Ikot Abasi. Abia State is renowned for its Ojukwu Bunker baptised National War Museum wherein relics and inventions of the Nigeria civil war are displayed. There are also the Blue River Tourist Village and the Uwanna Beach, famous for its weaving industry, both in Akwete. A visit to the Arochukwu Shrine and a sight of its famous long juju situated in a cave, immediately throws light unto ancient Nigerian juju. There is also the famous Azumiri Blue River Rose, with its crystal clear blue river that constantly gives you a pleasant thrill as you take a canoe ride around the river or picnic in its sandy beaches. Enugu is known for Nike lake; the Iva Valley Coal Mines; the Silicon Hill, very close to the Nkpologu campus of the Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), famous for its scenic beauty; and the Ezeagu Tourist Complex, wonderfully adorned by nature with the long Obinofia cave (5km long), a lake, a waterfall (of spring water), a unique weather condition and an exotic vegetation.
Lagos State, the former national capital is proud of her many tourist centres/attraction. These include the long stretch of beaches from Lekki Beach to Alpha Beach; Tarkwa Bay Beach; Badagry Coconut Beach; Eleko Beach; Kuramou Beach widely noted for night beaching; Maiyegun Beach; the French Village; the National Theatre Iganmu; the Genesis Deluxe Cinema; Silverbird Cinema and Galleria; the Murtala Mohammed Memorial Botanical Garden; The Slave Port used by slave merchants in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries; the First storey building in Nigeria where the Holy Bible was translated to Yoruba; the Ijede Warm Spring, etc. There is also the National Museum that houses sundry African and cultural artifacts dating as far back as 500BC-200AD. Ogun State is naturally prettified with the Olumo Rock, a massive outcrop of granite rocks of primitive formation, the highest point of which is about 137m above sea level and the Birikisu Sungbo Shrine in Ijebu-Ode among others. Nature’s gift of the Ikogosu Warm Spring located in Ondo State is attractively adorned by nature with an attractive surrounding landscape and vegetation. The warm water from the rock meets with cold water stream 100m below. It has lodging facilities. Nigeria is also proud of the Erin-Ijesha Water Falls in Osun State. Nature’s monument is at its peak here. The falls have five to seven mountain layers where the fresh water that flows among rocks splashes down to form stream pools at the base. This site is ideal for mountain exercises, picnics, etc. In Oyo State, there are the Ibadan University Zoo, Agodi Zoological Garden, Upper Ogun Games Reserve, an Mbari Arts Centre, etc. Edo also has a National Museum with motley artworks like the terracotta, bronze and cast iron artifacts with intrinsic historical significances.
The Jos Plateau is a tropical highland near the centre of Nigeria and with a temperature of about 4 Celsius degrees cooler than that on the coast. Over the years, the city of Jos has developed into a resort town attracting tourists to its cool climate. It is a city known for its waterfalls, several of which have been harnessed to provide power for the region’s mining industries, like the Assop and Kura falls. Other attractions in this city like the Ray Field resorts, Jos Zoo, Naraguta Falls, Liberty dam, etc are a wonder. The Yankari Game reserve or the Yankari National Park (the most developed Wildlife park in Nigeria with a lot of attractions for visitors) and the Wikki Lame Burra Game reserve (with warm springs available night and day for tourists who cherish swimming), in Bauchi State, house a large number and range of African animals (like baboons, waterbucks, elephants, crocodiles, bushbucks, warthogs, duikers, hippopotamus, etc). In Edo State, there are the Benin Museum; the Benin Moat; the Somorika Hills; Udo Tourist Centre, the Ogba Zoo and the Okomu Wildlife Sanctuary wherein is found rare species of African animals like the white-throat-ed monkey, the mona, the putty nosed guenon, chimpanzees, elephants, bush-baby, the potto buffalo, red river hog, duikers, horn bills, porcupines, etc. The three undulating sister hills of Adamawa State standing side by side each other is a beautiful tourist attraction. Do you want to see hills of nice tourist appeal that will send thrills through your spine, then go to Benue State. There are the Ikyogen Hills with its evergreen vegetation that provide constant grazing for animals; the Ushogbo Hills whose ever clement weather is ever welcoming for adventurers; and the Bassa Hills; and Swern Hills, noted for their historical ties. Do you want to visit Lake Chad, and then have a memorable boating and fishing experience, then travel to Bornu State. The Nok Village of the historical Nok Culture of the Nok people in the beautiful city of Kaduna, with its captivating display of excavations, terracotta heads of man, animals and weapons of war, is enticing. There is also a National Museum in the state, famous for its collections of woodcarvings, masks and other works including the famous Benin Bronze Heads. Niger State, home of the Kainji Dam that generates electricity for all the major cities in Nigeria, is famous for the Kainji Lake and National Park (with a variety of wildlife, boat cruising, game, etc). Katsina State is an epic. This is because of the over 900 years old wall, with seven different gates, surrounding the city. Its ancient apparels also include the Emir’s palace, and the Kusugu well in Daura. Kano State is popular for its traditional arts and crafts, leather work, weaving, pottery and wood carving. Among the tourist attractions replete in the ancient city are the Emir’s palace, the Gidan Makaman Museum, the Kofar Dyeing pits (famed to be Africa’s oldest), the famous Tiga dam (with a Lake Hotel), the Folgore Games Reserve, the Baturiya Birds Estuary, the Kano Zoological Garden at Gankum Albab, etc. Finally, Abuja, the beautiful and well-planned National Capital is a must-visit for all tourists for while the Zuma Rock greets you welcome, the large Aso Rock hills tells you; the government is here. Sites like the Central Mosque, the International Christian Centre, the motley of parks distributed throughout the city, etc, are really perplexing. There are still many other tourist attractions scattered throughout the federation, but because of the nature of this article, we shall make do with these.
Many of Nigeria’s cultural festivals also have tourist appeal. We cannot forget the buzz and excitement that goes with the Argungu Fishing Festival (Kebbi State), established in the 1930s and that is held between February and March annually and that attracts over 5,000 fishermen into the Argungu village to compete to catch the biggest Nile perch. The festival which is a fishing and cultural festival is a major week-long international event including art and craft exhibits; cultural dances and music; local drama; traditional boxing and wrestling; archery competition; racing events like bicycle races, donkey races, boat races; and the Kabanci displays, featuring series of water events, including canoe races, swimming, long deep diving competitions, bare hand fishing, wild-duck hunting, etc. The famous Arondizuogu (Imo State) Ikeji festival celebrated during the month of April is a celebration of African masquerades and juju. The Obom Añara, popularly known as Añara day (Imo State), celebrated on the 26th of December, is also a masquerade festival of relish. A must visit is the colourful and titillating Calabar Christmas festival/Carnival, the most leisurely tourist entertainment programme in Africa. The Osun festival is another major tourist attraction for lovers of African traditional festivals. It is a yearly festival kept every August by worshipers of the Osun goddess. The Osun groove with its peaceful neighbourhood and statues of the Yoruba pantheon are really a wonder. Delta State prides her Itsekiri Juju Festival, Okere Juju Festival and Agbasa Juju Festival. Lagos is known for her Eyo Masquerade, held to mark memorable events of persons at their death. In Ogun state, there are the Egungun festival, the Oro festival, Agemo festival, Obinrin Ojowo festival , and the Igunnuko Masquerades. Oyo State’s Ibadan delights in the Ode-Ibadan festival
Even though tourist services in the nation, at the moment, is not at its peak, the industry is still flourishing with more than 1,000,000 tourists coming into the nation annually from neighbouring African countries and the continent over. Tourists visiting the country have got nothing to fear for their security. They could attach themselves to any of the many tourism or travel agencies or companies in the nation or they could attach themselves to any good spirited Nigerian/family. Nigerians are a good and hospitable people, not minding the much negative propaganda about the nation. Nigerian Hotels are a delight and most offer tour/travels services. The likes of the Nicon Noga Hilton Hotel Abuja, Sheraton Hotels, Newcastle Hotels Lagos/Imo state, etc to mention but a few. If you travel with credit cards or ATM debit cards, you will have no fears visiting Nigeria with the spread of ATM machines all over the nation, some of which even pay in foreign currencies. And you will always find an attractive exchange rate in local markets. You can get Nigerian maps in any Nigeria five star hotel wherein you don’t also have to be afraid of your comfort and feeding in Nigeria. Travel broadens the mind and Tourism is life and men who travel should leave their prejudices at home as Frederick Douglass averred. This is the secret to enjoying your tourist experience of Nigeria. Visit Nigeria today and be rapt by its beauty. You are welcome!

Saturday, March 6, 2010

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Welcome to my world. My name is Michael Uzoma Chukwu. Wecome to my blog. Here you will find al you dsire in notime just by the click of the mouse. Questions, dating, friendship, information, religion, history, etc.

Am young here but in no time all these will come your way.

cheers!